B. McMillen and Y. Bellouard, "On the anisotropy of stress-distribution induced in glasses and crystals by non-ablative femtosecond laser exposure," Opt. Express 23, 86–100 (2015).
 
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Femtosecond laser exposure in the non-ablative regime induces a variety of bulk structural modifications, in which anisotropy may depend on the polarization of the writing beam. In this work, we investigate the correlation between polarization state and stress anisotropy. In particular, we introduce a methodology that allows for rapid analysis and visualization of laser-induced stress anisotropy in glasses and crystals. Using radial and azimuthal polarization, we also demonstrate stress states that are nearly isotropic. (Download / PDF)