Y. Bellouard, "Non-contact sub-nanometer optical repositioning using femtosecond lasers," Optics Express 23, 29258 (2015).
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Optical components like resonator or waveguides often have stringent requirements in term of positioning accuracy during packaging. While this can be done routinely in a laboratory environment, permanently positioning and aligning optical elements with nanometer accuracy in a fully packaged device is a challenging endeavor. Here, we demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in glass for the remote permanent fine-positioning of an optical element with sub-nanometer resolution.  (Download / PDF)