V. Tielen and Y. Bellouard, "Three-Dimensional Glass Monolithic Micro-Flexure Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Exposure and Chemical Etching," Micromachines 5, 697–710 (2014).
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Flexures are components of micro-mechanisms efficiently replacing classical multi-part joints found at the macroscale. So far, flexures have been limited to  two-dimensional planar designs due to the lack of a suitable three-dimensional micromanufacturing process. Here we demonstrate and characterize a high-strength transparent monolithic three-dimensional flexural component fabricated out of fused silica using non-ablative femtosecond laser processing combined with chemical etching. As an illustration of the potential use of this flexure, we propose a design of a Hoecken linkage entirely made with three-dimensional cross-spring pivot hinges.  (Download / PDF)