D. Tiwari, Y. Bellouard, A. Dietzel, M. Ren, E. Rubingh, and E. Meinders, "Dynamical Observation of Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Bubbles in Water Using a Single Laser Source for Probing and Sensing," Appl. Phys. Express 3, 127101 (2010).
 
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We report on dynamical observations of femtosecond-laser-generated bubbles in water using a single-laser-source pump/probe setup combined with stroboscopic imaging. With this simple setup, we accurately measure the transmission of a probe beam and simultaneously record images giving the size and lifetime of single-pulse-generated bubbles. Our experiments indicate that stable bubble nucleation can be obtained with pulses repetition rate up to 142 kHz, which offers promising perspectives for high-throughput jetting.  (Download / PDF)